How to Calculate a Loan Loss Provision Coverage Ratio

How to Calculate a Loan Loss Provision Coverage Ratio

Loan loss provisioning is a systematic way of handling risks rationally, signalling managerial prudence. Banks across the globe follow a dynamic provision policy. Sometimes, a well – designed policy is not enough to safeguard the interests of all the stakeholders. One such prominent and time – honoured modus operandi to face contingencies is the rate of provisioning to be set aside annually to meet any contingencies.

Banks and credit unions are in the business of lending money to individuals, families and businesses. But not every loan is repaid in full; in fact, many banks lend to risky borrowers by charging high interest rates. To stabilize earnings and remain solvent in bad times, banks estimate losses and seek to hold enough capital to absorb future write-offs.

Estimated Losses: Loan Loss Provisions
The loan loss provision is a balance sheet account that represents a bank’s best estimate of future loan losses. Suppose that a bank extends a Rs.5,00,000, five-year loan to a gas station in its community. If one year later the borrower runs into financial problems, the bank will create a loan loss provision. If the bank believes the client will only repay 60 percent of the borrowed amount, the bank will record a loan loss provision of Rs.2,00,000 ((100 percent – 60 percent) x Rs.5,00,000).


Loan loss provision

Actual Losses: Net Charge-offs
Some time after creating a loan loss provision for a worrisome loan, a bank will discover how much the borrower is actually able to repay. At that moment the bank will record a net charge-off — the amount of the loan that will never be repaid. In the earlier example, suppose the bank is only able to collect Rs.1,00,000 from the gas station. In this situation the net charge-off would equal Rs.4,00,000 — an amount even greater than the original loan loss provision.


Loan Loss Provision Coverage Ratio
The loan loss provision coverage ratio is an indicator of how protected a bank is against future losses. A higher ratio means the bank can withstand future losses better, including unexpected losses beyond the loan loss provision.

The ratio is calculated as follows: (pre-tax income + loan loss provision) / net charge-offs.

In the earlier example suppose that the bank reported pre-tax income of Rs.25,00,000 along with a loan loss provision of Rs.8,00,000 and net charge-offs of Rs.5,00,000. Its loan loss provision coverage ratio would equal 6.6 (25,00,000 + 8,00,000) / 5,00,000.

Insights Into the Economy

Loan loss provisions are important not only to banks but to the broader business community. During difficult economic times, loan loss provisions and net charge-offs spiked as borrowers struggled to repay their debts. Loan loss provisions and net charge-offs can therefore serve as useful indicators of the overall health of the economy.

How Loanyantra helps

The bad debts to the banks make them run short of money and this will always make the banks increase the loan interest rates. Loanyantra’s customers will know it before hand, as our team constantly track the loan’s interest rate and sends alerts. Also know about different banks interest rates and get into the bank whose interest rate is lower and a process where you can finish the loan earlier.


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